Monday night I tuned into the Twins-Tigers game, in part because I'm a glutton for punishment with a Pavlovian need to watch Twins games no matter how bad things get, but also because top prospect Jose Berrios was making his fourth career start. I was excited, or at least as excited as baseball fans in Minnesota get these days. Berrios' first three starts weren't great, but his previous outing was encouraging enough to make me think perhaps the 21-year-old former first-round pick was ready to become a full-time member of the rotation for the next decade or so.

He wasn't. Actually, whatever the opposite of that is, he was ready to do that and only that. Berrios failed to make it out of the first inning, recording two outs while allowing seven runs. First-inning knockouts have always fascinated me. It’s like showing up to your office, spilling coffee down the front of your shirt, slipping and falling on the wet floor beneath you, knocking over a filing cabinet in the process, and then being asked to go home by your boss. Not only did you embarrass yourself in front of co-workers, now they’re all watching you exit in shame. It’s made even worse by knowing that everyone else has to keep working for the rest of the day.

Twins manager Paul Molitor came out to remove Berrios following a bases-loaded double by light-hitting shortstop Jose Iglesias, and their limited interaction had a "put him out of his misery" vibe. Shortly after the game–which the Twins came back to tie at 8-8 before losing, thus providing their fans with the maximum possible pain–Berrios was demoted to Triple-A. There he joins fellow top prospect Byron Buxton, who began the season as the Twins' starting center fielder before being demoted to Triple-A three weeks later after hitting .156 in 17 games.

Buxton ranked No. 2 overall on our top-101 prospect list and Berrios was No. 17, so in addition to all the losing happening in Minnesota it's getting increasingly difficult to convince people here that prospects are worth believing in. I'm still a big believer in Berrios (and Buxton too), but his disastrous start Monday did give me some pause, in that it got me wondering how often a prospect as young and as highly touted as Berrios has ever been that helpless on a mound. My hope was that it actually happens quite a bit, and better yet happens quite a bit to prospects who go on to become amazing pitchers. But… well, it doesn't.

Here's the complete list of pitchers since 1995 who've been knocked out of a start in the first inning while allowing seven or more runs before turning 22 years old:

That's it. That's the whole list. Three times in two-plus decades.

I suppose the good news for Berrios–as long as he's into making sweeping pronouncements based on minuscule sample sizes, and really who isn't?–is that half of the previous pitchers to crack that list went on to be the MVP of the World Series. In fact, one night after Berrios' hideous start, Madison Bumgarner tossed an 11-strikeout shutout of the Padres to lower his career ERA to 3.01. He turned out just fine.

Hayden Penn? Not so much. Penn was a consensus top-100 prospect in multiple seasons and debuted for the Orioles in 2005 at age 20. He was out of the majors for good at age 25 and finished his big-league career with a 9.51 ERA in 82 innings. That means his career was 8.71 in all the starts that weren't the disaster we're talking about right now. This is the point at which I would advise Berrios that, contrary to what he may have thought while reading the previous paragraph, sample sizes this small should not be trusted for much of anything.

In an effort to expand the sample size a bit, let's change the qualifications for "young pitchers getting clobbered shortly after being called up." Berrios was 21 years old and making his fourth career start Monday when he allowed seven runs in two-thirds of an inning. So, how about a list of every pitcher since 1995 knocked out of a start in the first inning while allowing five or more runs before turning 23 years old. And let's toss in the additional qualifier that it had to be one of the first 10 outings of their career. In parentheses, we note the pitchers who were immediately sent down after their disaster starts:

Bumgarner disappears, because his Berrios-like disastrous start came in his 37th career game. By that point he was already established as a really good pitcher and a big part of the Giants' long-term plans, whereas Berrios was probably still living out of the suitcase that he schlepped back to Rochester. The list that remains is an underwhelming mix of busts, injury flameouts, and guys mediocre enough to stick around as back-of-the-rotation starters and middle relievers once it became clear they weren’t going to be impact arms. Most of all, it’s a very short list.

Trevor Bauer stands out as the most recent apt comparison to Berrios. Bauer, like Berrios, was a first-round pick and top prospect who cracked the top-25 on our list in 2012 and 2013. He debuted for the Diamondbacks as a 21-year-old in 2012 before being traded to the Indians that offseason. In his fourth Indians start–and eighth career start overall–Bauer recorded two outs and allowed five runs against the White Sox, on June 28. He was immediately demoted to the minors, where he stayed for the remainder of the season.

Bauer's blowup start may have simply been one very bad day at the office, but it's also possible that it hinted at larger issues holding him back from developing into the top-of-the-rotation starter many people expected at the time. He's still just 25 years old, so there’s certainly no need to write him off, but Bauer has a 4.44 ERA in 397 innings as a big leaguer and was demoted to the bullpen by the Indians this season before injuries forced him back into the rotation.

Bauer has mostly been held back by his lack of command and spotty control, walking 4.1 batters per nine innings for his career. His raw stuff is good and he's averaged 8.6 strikeouts per nine innings, but Bauer simply can't be counted on to throw the ball over the plate. That also makes him very different than Berrios, whose minor-league track record includes just 2.4 walks per nine innings at Double-A and Triple-A. If anything, Berrios is known for having plus command and good control for a 21-year-old. Until he reached the majors, that is. Berrios walked 12 of the 75 batters he faced for the Twins after walking just 25 of the 385 batters he faced at Triple-A.

His stuff was plenty good, with a 93 mph average fastball and a swinging strike rate of 11 percent. He just couldn't throw strikes, with only 43 percent of his offerings in the strike zone. It's hard to know whether to chalk that up to nerves or too much adrenaline or a pitcher merely having a bad four-start stretch, but in addition to not being any good Berrios also wasn't anything like his usual self. In particular he seemed to lack the feel for his off-speed pitches. He hung a lot of breaking balls; his changeup, which has always been billed as a plus offering, was either taken by hitters who weren't even close to fooled or clobbered by hitters who were equally unsurprised.

It’s worth noting that, first-inning knockouts or not, pitchers fail to live up to their hype all the time. In addition to throwing baseballs it’s basically what they do. Come up with any list of young pitchers using just about any qualification and you’ll probably be underwhelmed by their collective career value. Which is why showing patience with young pitchers can be so difficult. They often struggle, sometimes to degrees that make people question why anyone viewed them as having upside in the first place. But it's also true that simply being in the majors at a young age–for instance 21 years old, like Berrios–is in itself a decent sign that the upside exists.

In some cases teams just promote mediocre pitchers too quickly, but most of the time if a prospect gets to the majors at 20 or 21 or 22 it's because they dominated the minors and/or are clearly a special talent. Still, when a pitcher reaches the majors before turning 23 and fails to make it out of the first inning in one of his first 10 starts it certainly leads to lots of overreactions. He stinks. He wasn't ready for the majors. He doesn't have the proper makeup to succeed long term. You know the drill.

In some cases that stuff is true–the young pitcher wasn't good enough and his first-inning clobbering was a red flag that proved predictive. In other cases it was mostly just evidence of a talented young pitcher taking some lumps before eventually settling into a groove as a big leaguer. As a Berrios believer I want to think the latter will be the case, but in looking at the list of names who’ve had similar starts it’s hard not to be swayed at least a little bit by the former.

Thank you for reading

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Wilson Alvarez had a rather shaky debut too.
I appreciate the concept of the article but the search criteria are quite arbitrary and basically meaningless. All the evidence indicates that Berrios is ready for MLB and his first four starts, and the last one in particular, were due to nerves or excess adrenaline or simply random slump, as you note. If the Twins just sent him down to regroup and get back into his groove, fine-- if they read too much into this and start messing with him and bouncing him around, that would be a real shame. How they deal with this hiccup in his development will tell a lot about the Twins' organization going forward.
All the actual evidence - like 100% of it - indicates that Berrios is NOT ready for MLB and is in fact not an MLB caliber pitcher. Now hopefully this is just SSS - and he's still young - and it's good that he hit the first failure point at the MLB level. But it is delusional to say he's ready for MLB. He very clearly isn't - and the 'why' of that is a bit confusing since there are no obvious little tweaks or problems. They just hit the snot out of his pitches
Enjoyed reading this, thanks!
Kind of interesting that Byron Buxton had the non-pitching equivalent of this start to his own season.

The Twins seem to be good at drafting, but there may be some issues with development in the upper minors.
Buxton must be a nightmare to talent evaluators. While he has had as much hype as anyone, he has never lived up to the constant drum beating that he has received since 2013. He hit .240 at Fort Myers and .283 at Chattanooga, hardly indicative of a player ready to hit major league pitching. Berrios, on the other hand, has passed every test on the way to the Twins.
Agree with @fbraconi in that the concept of the article is interesting and I appreciate why the question comes up after such a horrific start.

However, if we want a look at Berrios' career arc, it seems more prudent to take a larger sample size. Below is an analysis of pitchers who have a K/9 >= 9.0 and BB/9 <=3.0 through at least 50 innings at AA or above before age 23 (Berrios stands at 9.1 K/9 and 2.7 BB/9 in 242 AA+ innings). This list tells me a different story:

Jose Fernandez
Noah Syndergaard
Julio Urias
Jose Berrios
“I’m not going to let that kid [Berrios] keep going out there until he has a little better idea of what he’s doing with the baseball. I just haven’t seen it enough to make me think he is going to figure it out right now.”

Paul Molitor is just out of control right now...I don't know how this gets quantified in the model...Maybe a 0-1 variable on whether the manager in question in undergoing a nervous breakdown...And that would explain Hayden Penn --- you had a manager who thought it was sane to send Daniel Cabrera to the mound every fifth day (that is, a manager going Looney Tunes in real time)...

On top of that, I think Mr. Gleeson himself is caught up in the 10-27 hysteria which seems to be gripping the Twins organization.

Look, the Twins are 10-27 and have decided (1) that Robbie Grossman is going to be the human being to get it through those thick young-players' skulls that you have to take a few pitches. (2) to send Berrios down rather than have him work in long relief for a while (where they could use him), and (3) have Buxton running around in 42 degree weather in Rochester, NY injuring his back trying to avoid a second baseman (look at this --
I'm really surprised it hasn't happened more often, in part because something similar happened to Lance McCullers just last year. McCullers was 21, and gave up 6 runs in 1/3 of an inning against Texas last summer.

Jarred Cosart was a bit older and perhaps not quite as hyped, but gave up 7 runs in 1/3 of IP in 2014, too.

And Zach Britton was a bit older at 23, but he did it *twice in one month* as a rookie in 2011. In one start, he gave up 9 runs in in 1/3 of an IP. In the other, he gave up 8 in 2/3 of an inning.

Josh Beckett had just turned 22 when he gave up 7 runs in 1 IP against Cincinnati in 2002.

Bartolo Colon's 2nd career start (at age 23) saw him give up 6 R to Seattle in 2/3 IP.

Other rookies who had awful starts include Teddy Higuera, John Tudor, Mike Scott and Kevin Appier. The fundamental premise here is right: I'm still surprised we don't see this more, but if you tweak the criteria, you'll find some pitchers who shook off the disaster start and had decent careers.
I am thrilled to see your name on an article here, Aaron, moreso if this is to be a regular thing. Thanks for the writeup... I appreciate whimsical stats as much as more meaningful ones.
Mr. Gleeman is going to be gainfully employed putting out 4-plus articles a weak if Ryan and Molitor continue running their mouths and throwing temper tantrums...

Next article: What is the history of players who have led the AL iin a major statistical category (here triples) one year and then have been demoted the next year before Memorial Day?..Do they ever make it back? What if their GM and manager say things like: “All you have to do is look at the stat line. It’s not very good,” GM Terry Ryan said of the outfielder’s .209 average and eight extra-base hits. “We gave him every opportunity to get going, and it just didn’t work.”

Article after that: How long do managers stay employed after they fail to realize their LF is standing out on the warning track in extra innings...Closest comps; Matt Williams, Casey Stengel taking a nap in 1962, the moron that let Jose Canseco pitch (K Kennedy)...

Article after that: If a manager says, "I only walked 17 times in 600 plate appearances in my rookie year, yet I wasn't demoted, and I made it to the hall of fame, and anyone can learn to do this, are Ted Williams and Mel Ott the only true comps...If they are, does that mean that since Ted Williams got Ed Brinkmann to hit .264 over 1,300 plate appearances in 1969-70 that there is a 50-50 chance that Eddie Rosario might hit .320 over a 1,300-plate-appearance span in 2017-18?