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The Mariners found their guy in Jerry Dipoto, and he found his guy in former catcher and Angels executive Scott Servais. The Phillies found their guy in that same Angels front office, hiring Dartmouth grad Matt Kentak. The Angels found in Billy Eppler their guy to replace those guys. The Brewers made fresh-faced Harvard man David Stearns their fresh-faced Harvard man.

And then these guys, and other guys, started hiring their guys: The Marlins chose Don Mattingly, the Padres chose Andy Green, the Nationals chose Bud Black—then lost him with a lowball offer so that now the Dodgers might choose him. And then, on Tuesday, a minor miracle: Washington chose Dusty Baker, the first move in months to suggest this isn’t all just a little bit of history repeating. Though it probably is.

After Servais’ Mariners press conference, much was made of the rapport between the new manager and the new GM, their previous collaboration, and the importance of speaking the same language. This is a crucial phrase, nearly as troubling in the figurative meaning as if it were literal. At the heart of the push for front office and managerial diversity is the desire to expand the range of common language.

The existing language of the modern front office might make those already on the inside more comfortable, but it isn’t the only way to talk about baseball, and it certainly isn’t the only or even the best way to move the game forward. Look at the organizations that we just saw in the World Series: The Royals and Mets took very different routes to arrive at the top of the baseball world, as did the Giants in 2014, and the Red Sox in 2013. There are very different routes available. In a game constantly in search of the next edge, do we really think when the front office sings a universal refrain of “market inefficiency” it can't use those lyrics to actually find the next one?

The problem we now face is a new iteration of an old problem: The idea that there is only one way to win the game, and only a small talent pool that can affect such an approach. In the past, it was the wise (often white) former player. Now, it’s the well-educated stathead. In the hands of analytically minded executives who claim to know better, we risk the game stagnating in a new way, succumbing to the mistaken notion so readily disproved that there is only one way to baseball successfully. That overly narrow understanding of the game raises the very real danger that we will give back the previous gains of the Selig Rule, maligning baseball progress and social progress at the same time.

Now, let’s establish an operating assumption: This problem isn’t caused by proactive machinations to exclude women and minorities from hiring. It’s not owners, presidents or GMs down there forfeiting wins to make some bigoted stance. The bulk of the problem is that, at some point, each hire seems to start with “Hey, these are the folks I know. And, boy, I know a lot of white men who went to Harvard or played baseball. Well, anyway!” The talent pool is strongly skewed.

When entry-level baseball operations pay as poorly as they do now (assuming they pay at all), the outline of the candidate able to fill that role is pretty strongly etched. It isn’t a matter of some people being willing to endure the hustle while others eschew it. It’s a matter of the being able to endure the hustle at all, so that the individuals often represent a very narrow socioeconomic and demographic profile. Not every Ivy League graduate who wants to start scouting or developing analytics comes from a financially privileged background, of course, and not every person on that side of the game is an Ivy League graduate. Certainly these guys (and they are overwhelmingly guys) work very hard, and accept the reality of low-paying or unpaid entry-level positions and internships. But the difference between that being a burden of youth and being flat out untenable is a big part of the difference between the front offices we have and the ones we say we want. And that doesn’t even consider the self-selection that likely occurs when women and people of color look to the top and see so few faces like their own. Why endure that thankless hustle if you feel you have no realistic hope of advancing? Or to put it another way: How many minor leaguers would endure the long slog of Low-A baseball if they looked up and saw virtually no one who looked like them in the majors?

Managers are a sad extension of this penchant for intellectual cohesion. Where the general managers of the future face the dueling pressures of financial uncertainty at the junior levels and grim prospects at the senior levels, the managerial pool is theoretically much larger. After all, the world is full to bursting with former players and coaches, many of whom are men of color, many of whom are qualified potential skippers. But when the deciding criteria is the front office’s ability to drive (or control) the decision-making in the dugout—and it wasn’t always—the front office is likely to lean toward the ones whose thinking falls somewhere between concurrence and obedience.

All of which is pretty dispiriting coming from a crowd that itself fought so long for relevance in front offices across the league. This isn’t to suggest that there aren't women and people of color who are statheads, anymore than it would be reasonable to suggest that all former players are white. But after a decade of painful progress to advance women and minorities to positions of authority, a generation of Ivy Leaguers are falling into the exact same traps: showing a predilection for “Clubability,” as Michael Lewis called it, over something new, something innovative, or even something marginally uncomfortable. They hire people like them. Instead of the Platonic ideal of a baseball organization, one predicated on the ability to stare unflinchingly at our heroes and value underutilized skills, what we get is a whole bunch of history repeating from the very people who were supposed to remind us that clubability is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

Baseball’s failure of diversity can be seen in the front office and the dugout, both manifesting symptoms of the same disease: prizing a view of the front office at once overbroad and myopic, fetishizing the intellectual sameness of the game’s acolytes so greatly that complying with a rigid understanding of how to win takes precedence over cultivating qualified candidates of a slightly different mold. The A’s under Billy Beane and Paul DePodesta didn’t succeed because DePodesta had a Harvard degree; they succeeded because they were willing to look beyond baseball as we understood it then and ask how we might understand it better.

So what should we do to fix it? Untangling the cross-cutting issues of class, gender and race that make baseball operations jobs difficult to attain will take detailed study and a comprehensive program on par with MLB’s attempts to eliminate performance enhancing drugs. It requires nuance and a lot of uncomfortable, frank conversations about where the game is and where it needs to go. But we can’t wait for those conversations to fully resolve before doing something.

Baseball should make entry-level positions a feasible financial possibility for a more diverse applicant pool, by requiring teams to create fellowship positions that pay a living wage and are designed to recruit and cultivate women and people of color. It wouldn’t take a Wall Street salary to make these positions livable. But they need to explicitly target a diverse pool of candidates, and then mentor those individuals as their careers progress. Not every one will become a general manager, but it takes the problem head on, creating a cohort that can provide a natural network for them going forward. It puts them in the air supply.

MLB should require the Selig Rule mandate actual interviews rather than mere consideration. Baseball should work to make diverse hires a natural outcome of the process, from the lowliest stat-cruncher all the way to the GM. Whatever they do, they should remove the suggestion. Merely pointing to the top isn’t working; pinning our hopes on an improved pipeline of talent is only a half answer without meaningful mandates at the senior levels. It allows teams far too easy an out. It permits too many organizations to head fake at diversity in their process while hiring the same profile over and over again. It permits inertia and stymies a change in direction.

The bottom line is that team decision-makers are most interested in trying to win, not affect social change. There’s a good case that they’re not doing former, by ignoring intellectual diversity and a broad pool of potentially qualified candidates. But there’s a better case that they’ll never do the latter unless it’s mandated, even when it’s in MLB’s interests. And right.

Ken Rosenthal has rightly noted the need for intellectual diversity, but it is important that we avoid conflating intellectual diversity with racial and gender diversity. They overlap, certainly, but we can’t take our eye off the stated ball of the Selig Rule. We might stumble into racial and gender diversity that way. Or we might end up with front offices of, say, white, male Big 10 graduates. That might represent diversity of a kind, but it’s a fairly narrow sort. We shouldn’t be striving to make all of these candidates the same by narrowing where they come from or what they look like. We should recognize that in a game played across the United States, featuring players from across the world who speak different languages and represent diverse cultures, and fans who dot every strata of American life. A diversity of voices and perspectives on the game isn’t an impediment to success: It’s the way forward. That way forward can, and should, look and sound and think and be a lot of different ways. That’s what makes baseball great. It reflects the people who watch it and play it, letting them come together with those who aren’t like them, while still seeing those who are like them on the field and in the stands. Or at least it ought to.

There have to be more baseball archetypes than the Ivy League Sabermetrics Prodigy and the Grizzled Former Player. The fact that we’re able to speak in terms of archetypes at all is indicative of the problem. Hiring Dusty Baker might be the most encouraging moment of the week—he doesn’t fit that archetype, either by demographics or by age or by what we think we know of the baseball language he speaks. But his hiring, while avoiding an embarrassing near-miss of having no African-American managers for the first time since 1988, doesn’t solve the problem. Not only does baseball compromise its moral imperative as America’s Pastime when it abdicates the responsibility to reflect the mosaic of players and fans who invest so much in it, it risks stagnating. I’m not sure what the mortgage crisis of baseball looks like, but I’m pretty confident that everyone being and thinking the same way for a long time is how we get there. The time for being polite is over. Baseball isn’t taking your suggestion, Mr. Commissioner. It’s time for a much firmer diktat. That’s what it has come to when speaking the same language is part of the problem.

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Pelecos
11/04
Really enjoyed this piece, agree with you wholeheartedly.
jfranco77
11/04
Agreed. Really well-written article. Hell of a debut.
yibberat
11/04
Get rid of the anti-trust exemption. Competition works. There is no long-term possibility of successfully mandating 'diversity' from the top down when the entire sport is using Monopoly101 to eliminate reasonably-paid jobs from the bottom up. Among athletic kids, baseball is irrelevant now unless parents have enough money for the traveling circuit or an Ivy U degree. And it will remain that way since the exemption has seemingly permanently killed off 50% of the playing opportunities in lower-level baseball and ensured that the remainder of players are exploited for up to a decade. Owners are always going to be a clubby little group until such time as they are forced to face actual competition rather than Potemkin competition - because that's how protected cartels work.
jdeich
11/04
Baseball front office jobs are like any other office jobs, and should be covered under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1991, and other critical Equal Opportunity legislation. MLB's revenue was $9.0B in 2014. The threshold for a "normal" business to make the Fortune 500 this year was $5.19B. If MLB was an entertainment company that sold streaming video (like Netflix, #474) instead of baseball games, they would be ranked #310 or so, bigger than media giants like News Corp. If a Fortune 500 company solely considered, interviewed, and hired males for highly-compensated managerial and front office jobs, they would be targets of massive class action lawsuits. Unlike the on-the-field jobs, there are no Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (e.g. the ability to hit a 90+ mph slider) that could be explained by gender. There's also no "pipeline" excuse; the Rangers semi-recently hired a 28 year old GM with no on-field experience, so they can't claim any front-office job has decades of specific requirements. How does MLB get away with having only males at top positions without a massive class action lawsuit? As an aside, who is the "highest ranking" female in an MLB organization? Zero female principal owners, zero female general managers, zero female managers, zero female bench coaches, etc. Justine Siegal was hired by the A's as a coach for its Instructional League team in October, but that was apparently a two-week gig. Anyone in a position of power that I'm missing?
beeker99
11/05
Kim Ng, who was employed by the Yankees and Dodgers, and now works for MLB; on the technicality that MLB itself is an MLB organization. Perhaps the only other female that anyone could name who is associated with an MLB team is Suzyn Waldman.
jecanning
11/04
A very thought-provoking article; much appreciated.
Richie
11/04
No, it'd be a thought-provoking article in some place like the National Review. Here, man oh man - OK, woman oh woman - is it preaching to the choir. OK, I will go away now. Promise.
kennygreer1993
11/04
Require the Selig rule? No, get rid of it. Its almost 2016, Baseball is already too PC. I agree with a previous poster get rid of the anti trust exemption. Race Relations among young people have never been better.
sportspopery
11/04
Baseball as an industry has historically been reluctant to invest in its grassroots, or to do anything more than the bare minimum with regards to social obligations. Aside from the well-documented occurrences of outright bias, the chief reason for this is that there has never been a glaringly obvious profit motive for the industry to do so. This short-sighted mentality has taken on different forms across generations, but half-hearted measures like the Selig Rule and RBI are indicative of the challenge baseball faces going forward. A lack of racial, ethnic, and intellectual diversity cheapens and degrades the sport because it precludes means of entry for those without means or connections. It makes the sport a echo chamber, thereby depriving the industry of the very ability to innovate and think outside of traditional frameworks current hiring practices purport to pursue. Mandating interviews for minority candidates may aid a solution to one issue, but addressing the issue of diversity at the grassroots is much more thorny and requires a level of intellectual and financial investment from the teams that the owners have historically balked at. Requiring teams to establish and maintain academies in their home cities may be a way to start this process, but I'm afraid that it might be too late. Thanks for this--it's a fantastic insight into an all too ancient problem.
Richie
11/04
1. Baseball's fan base is not diverse. It's quite white. Y'all lying there. (wanting it to be diverse, "knowing" it could/should be diverse, is not it currently being diverse; difference between future and current tense) 2. Can you say "quota"? Well, not if it'll hurt my jeremiad. 3. Quotas for urban institutions such as police forces and city work crews is one thing. Quotas for things such as university slots is another thing. (granted, they mostly shift opportunities from the Bud Bundys of the world to the Sasha O'Bamas of the world) Quotas for baseball?!? Good gravy. 4. I'll go away now. Y'all welcome.
lmarighi
11/20
Not sure what data you are basing your claim in #1 on, but when I go to watch a game at the Oakland Coliseum, it's not just a bunch of white people. Maybe that's the outlier, but unless you have data to back you up, I can't take you seriously.
ChrisMitchell
11/04
Great article. Very well thought out and articulated. Thanks, Megan.
edgargiulo
11/04
I totally disagree with your article, although it reflects the liberal, progressive position that the evaluation of talent by way of results is discriminatory. What matters in baseball, and other sports is results. If any of the prior black managers or GM's produced results like many of the select few successful white managers and GM's, they would be in high demand. I guess that soon you will be calling for "Participation" Trophy's to be given out to all teams at the end of each year instead of the World Series Trophy. Additionally, anyone who owns, operates or manages an organization of any kind has a tendency to hire those people they can relate to. Have you ever walked into a minority owned company? I have, and 90% of the people employed are of the same minority group...do you call that discrimination also?
mtr464
11/05
That's a whole lot of talking points you heard on talk radio that you managed to fit in there!
lmarighi
11/20
I don't see how a results-based evaluation means that it makes perfect sense to hire a bunch of inexperienced white men for jobs. There have been plenty of unsuccessful white male managers, just as there have been unsuccessful mangers of color, and yet plenty of new white people get jobs.
bline24
11/04
It is funny that you think the sport that excluded men of color until 1947, had unofficial quotas for the next 25 years, enforced the reserve clause, colluded against free agents and looked the other way in the face of fairly obvious evidence of PED abuse is risking its moral imperative by not hiring from a more diverse pool of interns.
alfredeinstein
11/04
Awesome article, really glad to see this at BP (and not behind the paywall, to boot!)—Share it generously, folks!
cmaczkow
11/04
I have one slight disagreement: I actually rolled my eyes when the Nationals hired Dusty Baker, because it's yet another instance of recycling the same group of people through the same management roles on different teams. Sure, he's a minority, and sure, it's good that someone outside the "rich white guy/grizzled white guy" background broke into the fraternity, but his hiring is still an example of positions being filled by the Same Old Group as Always. It's not exclusive to baseball by a long shot, as has been noted. It's a much broader socioeconomic issue, and baseball is just another case study.
wthomson
11/04
"Baseball should make entry-level positions a feasible financial possibility for a more diverse applicant pool, by requiring teams to create fellowship positions that pay a living wage and are designed to recruit and cultivate women and people of color." IMHO your best suggestion by far. Reasonable and cost effective.
ravenight
11/04
Great article! I think the problems it points are really interesting ones, and I had never thought about how the salaries at the low end of the scale for the Front Office might affect the diversity of the people in those positions. That said, I don't know how you can enforce diversity of hiring for singular positions. It's one thing to penalize a team that fails to employ certain percentages of minorities and of women overall, but if you mandate that for the singular GM or managerial positions, how do you enforce it? If every team interviews at least 1 woman an 1 minority for their GM position, and then they all decide on the white guy, which teams were being racist/sexist? So the bottom-up approach is better - increase pay at the bottom to attract more talent, impose reasonable standards for hiring diversity at the lower levels, and maybe even get to the point where people are being recruited into this type of work at the college level as preparation for the profession. Some day there could be a stathead draft alongside the Rule 4 draft in June! One positive of the stathead trend is that being white and Ivy league isn't a prerequisite for being a good statistician. Once teams have broken the barrier of having people who never played minor league ball as managers and coaches, it becomes a lot easier to open the door to women as managers, coaches, GMs, etc. It probably won't happen with this generation, but given that the current crop of managers seemed far-fetched in 2000, perhaps by 2030 anything is people. This piece deserves a closer editing pass: - in the 5th paragraph, it says "affect such an approach", but I think it means "effect" (that is, I don't think the intent was to say that they are only looking for people who give the appearance of the approach, or that they are looking for people to change the approach, but rather that they want someone who will make the approach work). - In the 6th paragraph, "It’s not owners, presidents or GMs down the forfeiting wins" should be "down there", I guess? Or "down with"? - Then the 7th paragraph has "looked up and saw almost virtually no one"
abywaters
11/05
And then there is this disaster of a sentence: "We should recognize that in a game played across the United States, featuring players from across the world who speak different languages and represent diverse cultures, and fans who dot every strata of American life."
fawcettb
11/04
But...Dusty Baker is a pitcher-destroying crappy manager, and if someone can show me how that's related to "diversity" or race one way or another, good luck.
edman8585
11/04
On a purely selfish level, I'm cool with the "White Male Big Ten Graduates" getting extra consideration.
MikePemulis
11/04
Great article. I was especially intrigued by, "it is important that we avoid conflating intellectual diversity with racial and gender diversity." Although I think the sentiment here was to not mistake hiring white, Harvard statisticians as 'diversity'; as a Nats fan, I was dismayed at the Baker hiring. Although he is a respected and successful black manager, he is probably (at least among the sabr community) the most notorious 'old-school', anti-statistical, 'go with the gut' manager. He very much represents the good ole' boys way of running a baseball team (kinda like their last manager). Surprised there was no mention of Felipe Alou in the article. Jonah Keri is having a seizure right now. If I'm not mistaken he was one of (if not the?) first Latino (definitely Dominican) manager and widely regarded as a genius both in the dugout and clubhouse. Was passed over numerous times by the Expos before finally being offered the position too. I don't think this article has anything to do with quotas or affirmative action. I think the two main tenets/questions are 1. If minority talent is out there (and I think it pretty obviously is), why isn't it finding its way into front offices and managerial staffs? and 2. If major league baseball is failing to attract FOT talent of color (or gender) diversity at the entry level, then why and why wouldn't they want to address that in a meaningful way?
scareduck
11/05
Seeing the downvoted comments, I'm really amazed at how rapidly BPro has become an echo chamber.
jnossal
11/10
That's a fairly recent development, so you could be excused for not noticing it. My own observation is group think took serious hold among BP contributors and readers sometime around, um, 2004. Or maybe it's always been true, but only became readily evident with the advent of BP comments. There are exceptions, but they are few. The echo chamber effect seemed to bloom about the time most of the BP old guard (Kahrl, Sheehan, Jaffe, etc.) moved on, but I think that is more of a coincidence than an effect. My guess is you have a second generation of statheads who took interest in baseball analytics without ever having been seriously exposed to what came before. They tend to cling to orthodox analytics much in the same way that observes clung to traditional baseball metrics in the pre-James era. As a result, you get plenty of participants who fancy themselves as critical, independent thinkers, when all they are really doing is parroting the findings and opinions of those they found most influential when first introduced to the field. You can see this most easily in the tendency to pound negative votes into any comment that disputes any aspect of "modern" conventional wisdom in lieu of a thoughtful rebuttal or, as is often too obvious, even a cursory consideration of the point being made. That's terribly ironic considering the genesis of BP was built on the idea of challenging orthodox opinion. Meet the new boss, same as the old boss.
lmarighi
11/20
I certainly think that some comments get excessively downvoted, but claiming that it's because of "groupthink" seems like a willful misunderstanding of what's going on. The comments that tend to get downvoted (and I usually make the extra effort to read them) are ones where a poster makes a wild assertion, doesn't back it up, and then gets his/her hackles up if someone asks them to support that assertion with data. So I guess if you think that wanted arguments that can actually be supported by facts is "groupthink", then you are right, but most of us call that "logic".
jnossal
1/14
Sorry for the late reply, but, no. Yes, there are plenty of examples of what you describe, but that's not what I'm talking about. There are plenty of perfectly cogent comments made that are negatived or derided without any kind of intelligent rebuttal. Look at edgargiulo's comment on this very page. He made a reasoned and relatively calm statement, but only you managed a decent reply while at least 10 other posters couldn't bother, just gang-tackling him with negatives rather than trying to address his points. I understand not every reader wants to take the time to reply to every comment, my argument is still the same, there is a real lack of honest discussion on these boards. Rating systems reinforce popular thinking and discourage unpopular, unconventional and provocative opinion, the very opposite of what BP used to be.
gerrybraun
11/05
I had trouble following. Then you lost me when you said racial diversity and intellectual diversity "overlap."
edgargiulo
11/05
So I see that the comments of anyone who disagrees with the article are hidden in the "below the viewing threshold" black hole. So this is the "Diversity" you desire? In other words, you champion and allow diversity, as long as those you include agree with your viewpoint. My congratulations to all of you blind sheep in the herd following the leader.
abywaters
11/05
The writers and readers of BP have been left-of-center (or even left-of-left-center) from its inception. As someone decidedly right-of-center, until and unless their political views skew their objectivity to the point that their statistical analysis and prospect ratings are of no use to my Diamond Mind baseball teams, I don't really care. To get upset that people are down-voting political comments they disagree with is really no different from down-voting a political comment here that you disagree with - both are emotional responses quite different from how people would respond to an article on whether Jack Morris should be in the Hall they disagree with. Just let it go. It's not like BP is censoring or erasing the comments.
beeker99
11/05
I am very confused by your comment. As I understood the article, the point was to examine how the hiring of folks with certain qualifications was leading to a less diverse, in terms of different ages/genders/skin colors/ethnic backgrounds/etc, collection of front offices and on field management within MLB teams. She argues, persuasively in my opinion, that MLB teams should hire in such a way as to increase such diversity. You said, "So this is the "Diversity" you desire? In other words, you champion and allow diversity, as long as those you include agree with your viewpoint." The diversity you refer to - diversity of opinion - is not exactly the diversity Ms. Rawley is arguing in favor of. Further, I'm not sure how Ms. Rawley is allowing diversity, either the kind she addressed in her article - she does not make hiring decisions for an MLB team - or the kind you bring up - she does not control how people vote on comments. Finally, who is Ms. Rawley including or excluding, and how is she doing that? You were able to type comments in response to her article, same as any other BP subscriber. My long experience with BP's comments is that readers tend to upvote comments that are funny, or that state something they agree with, or that make solid, logical arguments. Readers tend to downvote comments that are rude, offensive, or include arguments that are illogical or just ad hominems or both. I still don't understand your comment; it doesn't make sense, and seems to be an attack on Ms. Rawley, as opposed to pointing out why you disagree with her. I can't speak for others, but that's why I downvoted it. Has nothing to do with my feelings on the topic at all.
beeker99
11/05
BTW, in case it isn't clear, I am responding to edgargiulo, not to abywaters. abywaters' comment made sense to me.
fgreenagel2
11/05
Nice job.
edgargiulo
11/05
Understand and agree with your point...but when you provide an area for reader comment, the comments of all readers should be respected and listed
rdutchofdukes
11/06
The comments that aren't showing are ones that have been downvoted by other BP readers. The writer has nothing to do with it, nor does the content of the article.
MateoM
11/05
Great article and good start. Welcome to BP. I do not know if you know that Dave Cameron wrote a similar article in The Hardball Times Annual, I think it was two annuals ago. If so, then I, as an avid BP reader, would have appreciated a mention of Dave's article, and perhaps distinguishing your article from his. Regardless, I applaud your effort as I believe this issue deserves attention from as many fronts as possible.
kenraty
11/06
Good article, on many levels, in spite of what the nitpickers have highlighted. It seems, though, that this clubability is present beyond just the teams, and extends to the industry that writes and broadcasts the game as well. What is the percentage of women who have HOF voting privileges? How many beat writers are women? Until Jessica Mendoza appeared this year, there hasn't been a woman doing play-by-play or color on a MLB broadcast. The entire industry needs to progress.
MateoM
11/06
Rofldude, nitpickers? I would hope that Megan Rowley strives towards improving her writing and reporting, and would take comments from "nitpickers" in a constructive manner. Having said that, I agree with the rest of your sentiment. Let's hope the day comes soon when we do not use gender as an adjective in describing what someone does, e.g., Warren Moon being described as a "black quarterback." And, I would add that for those who say "give it time," which I have not heard here but I think that thought is out there, I commend MLK Jr's "A Letter from the Birmingham Jail."
kenraty
11/09
I should have been more clear on those I referred to as "nitpickers". Commenting on the style and substance of an article is fine, but to focus on editorial gaffes is something BP should take responsibility for as well.