The Balance-Sheet Approach

One common, back-of-the-envelope way to predict a baseball team’s success is to start with the previous season’s actual record. Then, adding and subtracting for players acquired or lost, one can swap into last year’s results this year’s new expected performances. I call it the balance-sheet approach. Nobody would say this method is deadly accurate, but it is employed quite often during the offseason and spring training by radio hosts and commentators. How good is it?

Put simply, it’s terrible. It turns on the implicit assumption that everything except the players gained and lost will perform at exactly the same level they did the year before. Because players (both good and bad) tend to regress toward the mean, such a method will always systematically favor teams that were good last year and punish teams that were bad. Let’s have an example.

Last year, the Braves’ actual record was 86-76. This offseason, they traded away Javier Vazquez, acquiring Melky Cabrera (and elite prospect Arodys Vizcaino). They also lost Mike Gonzalez (to free agency) and Rafael Soriano (via trade after he unexpectedly accepted arbitration), but brought on free agents Billy Wagner and Takashi Saito as replacements. They sloughed Kelly Johnson and decided to replace his PAs with Martin Prado’s production. Tallying up the gains and losses in PECOTA-predicted wins (rounded to nearest half-win):

Gains Wins Losses Wins
Melky Cabrera 2.5 Javier Vazquez 4.5
Billy Wagner 1.5 Rafael Soriano 1.5
Takashi Saito 1.0 Mike Gonzalez 1.0
Martin Prado 1.5* Kelly Johnson  1.5*
Total Gained 6.5 Total Lost 8.5

* I have divided Prado’s and Johnson’s numbers in half to reflect the half season that each played as the starter last year. Other part-time players, like Ryan Church, Jesse Chavez, and Jeff Francoeur, have been omitted for simplicity’s sake.

By this method, the Braves should be a little more than two wins worse in 2010 than they were in ’09. That would make them an 84-win team. And in fact, if we look at the current PECOTA-based depth charts, we find an 84-78 projected record. Easy like Sunday morning, right?

Thing is, it’s not nearly so simple. Let’s start with the big picture. At how many positions can the Braves expect to be better this year than they were last year? They can reasonably expect similar results from second base, catcher, center field, and shortstop. Just about the entire rest of the team is in flux.


At .297, Chipper Jones had his worst year by True Average since 2004 last year, and even at age 37 must be expected to benefit from more than just a dead-cat bounce (if not a full return to 2008 levels). Derek Lowe, signed to a four-year deal prior to last season, had his own worst season since 2004, contributing just two pitching runs to the Bravo cause. Considering he averaged 33 runs over the previous three seasons, it’s a safe bet that Lowe won’t be so excruciatingly bad next year (even if there are scouting concerns about his velocity). Kenshin Kawakami, who was relatively steady even as he bounced between bullpen and rotation last year, should help stabilize the rotation as well.

Perhaps most notable, though, is the expected improvement from Tim Hudson. After returning from Tommy John surgery on September 1, he pitched 42 1/3 innings, recording 30 strikeouts against 13 walks and posting nearly a full pitching win. PECOTA is studiously pegging him for a pedestrian 4.33 ERA and a 77/40 K/BB in 124 innings. Find me a bookie who sets that line for Hudson this year and you can color me surprised. Not only did Will Carroll’s THR peg his injury risk at merely yellow, he indicates that there’s more room for optimism. Hudson is now 19 months removed from Tommy John surgery, and given that he pitched major-league ball in only one of those months, he’s now squarely in the TJ "honeymoon" period (during which a post-TJ pitcher is much stronger than he was pre-surgery). Additionally, all the rest and recovery from elbow surgery allowed his somewhat-balky shoulder to recuperate as well. I don’t know how many runs I’d tack onto PECOTA’s estimate, but it’d be somewhere between a bunch and a bushel. The Braves obviously agree, as they inked Huddy to a three-year, $28-million deal in November.

Your Guess is As Good As Mine

All said, not everything about the Braves is so cut-and-dried. In fact, the Braves have significant flexibility at several positions, and uncertainty at others. You can bet that Bobby Cox, entering his final year of managing, will be eager to squeeze the most out of his players to reach the promise land one last time. Fortunately for him, he has all the right tools to do so.

Platoons are the lost art enamored to Strat-O-Matic players and 11-man pitching staff apologists alike (ignoring, for the moment, the substantial overlap between the two). Smart money has the Braves platooning at least one outfield spot by late May. With Jason "Jay Hey Kid" Heyward muscling his way into right field (and, ahem, denting the bosses’ cars while he’s at it), Melky Cabrera and Matt Diaz will have to share time in left. That’s okay, since Matt Diaz goes bump in the night against lefties (.347/.384/.537 in 667 PA career against them) and Melky has always been a SHINO (switch hitter in name only); he’s hit .255/.325/.355 in 637 PA against lefties batting righty.

Another intriguing platoon possibility would be to pair up Eric Hinske and Troy Glaus. Hinske has whistled righties to a ditty of .263/.347/.456 in his career, while Glaus has a .277/.399/.558 line against lefties in more than 1,500 PAs. Especially if Glaus isn’t as good as his career numbers against righties (and is there anyone out there who thinks he is?), Bobby Cox has every reason to give him a rest on days the team faces tough righties.

Kids These Days

How we’ve gotten this far without mentioning the Braves' biggest upside is a legitimate mystery. Between Jason Heyward and Tommy Hanson, the Braves have two of the highest upside players in the game. (In fact, if you want to get technical, PECOTA’s Upside score ranks Heyward as the 32nd-highest hitter and Hanson as the ninth-highest pitcher.) It’s tough to project players so young (Hanson is 23, Heyward is 20), but you’d have a lot harder time finding someone to tell you these guys will fail than someone to tell you they’ll be perennial All-Stars. Considering that they are replacing the likes of Garret Anderson and Jo-Jo Reyes, it’s awfully tough to see how they aren’t net gains for the Braves. PECOTA loves Hanson this season, projecting him for almost five pitching wins. On the other hand, PECOTA remains unsure about a 20-year-old outfielder with three games above Double-A, and sees Heyward as the worst offensive regular on the team. Before you tell him that, though, I’d suggest moving your car.

Question of the Day

 How many wins will the Braves rack up this year? What are their chances of getting Bobby Cox back to the playoffs one last time? What players on the team are the best bets to take a hit in their production? Jurrjens? Prado? Someone else?  

You need to be logged in to comment. Login or Subscribe
I don't understand equating Prado and Johnson based on the time they were starters. Prado's OPS in the second half of last year, when he was the full-time starter, was .772. Johnson's for the first half, when he was the starter, was .645. Those numbers are pretty far apart.
This is all potentially true, but there's an awful lot of "what ifs?" in play here. Health- Chipper, Glaus and Hudson (Jurjjens has had an elbow exam already, too) Reliance on youth- Hanson and Heyward look like studs, but even great young players sometimes struggle. I agree that the Braves should be good, but I'd expect a high variance around any prediction of their team performance. They could be great, good, or have the season slip away. BTW- It's really a shame they traded Vazquez. In the near term, this is a huge loss- enough to keep them out of the playoffs, I fear.
Actually, with Jurrjens, it was a shoulder, not an elbow, issue, which is probably potentially worse. He is apparently fine now, but we will see.
I'd go for an uptick in production from Brian McCann too, with the assumption he'll be able to see the ball in April this year. The Braves are probably one of the hardest to predict in that if everyone plays how they can and stays healthy they can win 90+ games. However, there's an awful lot of youth and inexperience and an awful lot of walking injuries. The space left in the budget will be an interesting element too, because I think they have enough to make a push for a big bat at the deadline to tip them over the edge.
I've got the Braves winning 163 games and the World Series with Jason Heyward hitting a 5-run, walk-off homer in the first inning of game 4. Color me an optimist.
As a Braves fan, this is a really tough team to figure out. There are questions marks at EVERY position aside from cacther and CF (where we havea pretty good idea what the production will be). I can see us getting to the World Series if everything falls right and no injuries, or I could see us being very average again. Gaining Hanson and Hudson over the course of a full year and Lowe being better makes up for losing Vasquez. But Jurjjens will probably take a step back so call the SP even with last year (when it was the best in the league). Offense will be better with Mclouth for a whole year, Glaus instad of Casey freaking Kotchmen, Hayward instead of Francour, and Chipper will be better. I think it comes down to Mcann hitting 4th, if he has the best year of his career, we are in good shape.
Interesting article. I don't agree that CF results will be similar, though. A full year of McLouth should be superior to last year's two months of an injured Jordan Schafer doing his Doug Flynn impersonation. I think 1B is the big question mark. Hinske will be exposed if he gets too much playing time. Glaus could hit 30 HRs and be the right-handed hitter that balances the line-up or he could wash out in 30 days and I don't like their fallback options. Freddie Freeman didn't look ready last year and may need all of this year in the minors.
Nice article.
As always, it's good to see you, PWHjort.