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Glossary: Pitching

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1B

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For hitters: Singles
For pitchers: Singles Allowed
For positions: First Baseman

2B

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For hitters: Doubles
For pitchers: Doubles Allowed
For positions: Second Baseman

3B

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For hitters: Triples
For pitchers: Triples Allowed
For positions: Third Baseman

AVG

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Hitters: Batting average
Pitchers: Batting average allowed

AVG_NP

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Average number of pitches per start

B1R

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Singles per plate appearance

B2R

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Doubles per plate appearance

B3R

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Triples per plate appearance

BABIP

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A pitcher's average on batted balls ending a plate appearance, excluding home runs. Based on the research of Voros McCracken and others, BABIP is mostly a function of a pitcher's defense and luck, rather than persistent skill. Thus, pitchers with abnormally high or low BABIPs are good bets to see their performances regress to the mean. The league average for modern pitcher BABIP is around .300.

Hitter BABIP is much more of a skill, based on how well they are able to hit and place the ball, along with their speed.

Equation:

BABIP = (H - HR) / (AB - K - HR + SF + SH)

BB

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Hitters: Base on balls (walks)
Pitchers: Base on balls (walks) allowed

BB9

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Bases on balls allowed per 9 innings pitched.

BB_IP

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Walks per inning pitched

BEQ_EXP_R

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Total expected run value from bequeathed runners (runners who are on base when the pitcher left his games).

BEQ_OWN_EXP_R

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Expected runs value from bequeathed runners for which the exiting pitcher is responsible

BEQ_OWN_RUNS_PREVENTED

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Bequeathed baserunners of the exiting pitcher prevented from scoring. The difference between expected runs and scored runs.

BEQ_R

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Bequeathed runners who scored.

BEQ_RESP_RUNNERS

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Bequeathed runners for which the pitcher is responsible. More simply, the number of runners a pitcher left on base when exiting the game, excluding runners still on base put there by a preceding pitcher.

BEQ_SCORED

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The number of runners a pitcher left on base when exiting the game who eventually scored.

BFP

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BK

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Not recorded 1876-1880.

BQB

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BQR

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Measures how many more or fewer of the bequeathed baserunners subsequent relievers allowed to score than would be expected from league average performance in those situations. I.e., a positive figure means the following relievers kept more of the bequeathed runners from scoring than expected, negative means more of the runners scored than expected.

BQS

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Blown Quality Start

BR9

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Formula:

BR9 = (( H + BB + HBP ) / IP ) * 9

BS

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Occurs when a pitcher comes into the game in a save situation and surrenders the lead at any point during his appearance. The runners that score may be inherited from another pitcher, but the blown save is still charged to the pitcher who allowed them to score. Assigned for both closers and middle relievers.

Ball%

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Balls

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Number of balls seen (batter) or thrown (pitcher)

Beq Runs Prevented

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Bequeathed runs prevented from scoring. Measures how many more or fewer of the bequeathed baserunners subsequent relievers allowed to score than would be expected from league average performance in those situations. I.e., a positive figure means the following relievers kept more of the bequeathed runners from scoring than expected, negative means more of the runners scored than expected.

Beq. Rnrs

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Bequeathed baserunners. More simply, the number of runners a pitcher left on base when exiting the game, including runners still on base put there by a preceding pitcher.

ER

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ERA

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Earned Run Average. Earned runs, divided by innings pitched, multiplied by nine.

FAIR_QS

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Uses the same basic framework as a normal quality start - at least 6 innings pitched (or 18 outs) and no more than 3 runs allowed. However, expected runs and outs from fair run average (FRA) are used instead of actual runs and outs.

There is also an adjustment made for a pitcher's level of defensive support, when compared with the seasonal run environment and the park where the game is played.

FAIR_RA_RELIEF

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Fair Run Average in relief appearances.

FAIR_RA_START

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Fair run average for innings by a starting pitcher. "Fair runs" differ from traditional assignment of runs in that a pitcher who leaves the game is charged with the expected run value of any bequeathed runners left on base, whether or not they eventually score.

FIP

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FIP is a component ERA inspired by the work of Voros McCracken on defense-indepdendent pitching statistics, but has become more widely used because of the ease of computation - it requires only four easily-found box score stats, uses only basic arithmetic operations and has four easily-memorized constants. It was conceived of by both Tom Tango and Clay Dreslough, the latter of who called it Defense-Independent Component ERA.

At Prospectus, we are including hit batters in the walks term. The constant we use is both league and season specific - in other words, a pitcher in the American League will have a different FIP constant than a pitcher in the National League. This differs from the presentation of FIP on sites such as Fangraphs, which use one constant for both leagues in each season.

Here is an example of the Fielding Independent Pitching spectrum based on the 2011 season:

Excellent - Roy Halladay 2.17
Great - David Price 3.36
Average - Tim Stauffer 4.00
Poor - Carlos Zambrano 4.56
Horrendous - Bronson Arroyo 5.68

FIP_MINUS_ERA

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FRA

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Fair Run Average differs from FIP in a few ways. While FIP is concerned only with what a pitcher is believed to control-typically strikeouts, walks, and home runs, though Prospectus includes hit batsmen in our FIP calculation-Fair Run Average takes things a step further. Pitchers receive credit for good sequencing, thus rewarding pitchers who seem to work out of jams more often than usual. Fair Run Average also considers batted ball distribution, base-out state, and team defensive quality (as measured by Fielding Runs Above Average).

Here is an example of the Fair Run Average spectrum based on the 2011 season:

Excellent - Clayton Kershaw 2.90
Great - Brandon McCarthy 3.42
Average - Ivan Nova 4.36
Poor - Brett Cecil 5.14
Horrendous - Jake Arrieta 5.88

Fair RA_Plus

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Fair Run Average Plus is calculated by taking a pitcher's Fair Run Average, dividing it by the league-average, and then subtracting that number from two. The reasoning is provided by Colin Wyers in the Fair Run Average Plus introduction. In addition, park and league quality adjustments are made.

GB%

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Groundball Percentage. The number of groundballs that a pitcher allows as a percentage of all balls hit into play. Our definition of GB% does not count line drives or popups as groundballs, and considers all batted balls put into play, not just those that result in outs. Because of this definition, the league average GB% is somewhat lower than than what may be listed in other venues, or about 44%.

H

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Hits, or hits allowed.

HBP

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Not recorded for the NL 1876-1886, the AA in 1882-83, the 1884 UA, and the 1871-75 NA, for either hitters or pitchers.

HBPR

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Hit By Pitch Rate -- HBP per plate appearance

HITR

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Hit Rate -- hits per plate appearance

HR

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Home runs, or home runs allowed.

HR9

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Home runs allowed per 9 innings pitched.

HR_IP

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Home Runs per Inning Pitched

HRr

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Home Run Rate -- homers per plate appearance

H_9

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Hits allowed per 9 innings pitched

H_IP

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Hits per inning pitched

Hold

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While definitions vary, the most common ones credit a pitcher with a "Hold" when he a) enters the game with a lead, b) records at least one out, and c) leaves the game still in the lead.

IBB

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Not recorded for any league prior to 1955.

IBBR

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Intentional base on balls rate (per plate appearance)

INB

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Inherited baserunners.

INH_EXP_R

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Total expected run value from inherited runners (runners who are on base when the reliever entered his games).

INH_RUNNERS_SCORED

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Number of runners who were inherited by the pitcher (they were on base when he came into the game) and scored while the pitcher was in the game.

INH_SCORE

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Number of runners who were inherited by the pitcher (they were on base when he came into the game) and scored eventually. This includes runners who were on base before the pitcher entered the game and scored after the pitcher left the game.

INNINGS_FINISHED

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Innings completed by a pitcher

INR

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Inherited runs prevented from scoring. The expected number of inherited runners that would score in the reliever's appearances based upon league average performance, minus the actual number the reliever allowed to score.

INS

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Inherited runners who scored. A raw count of the number of runners who scored. This differs from INR, which subtracts INS from the expected number of inherited runners that would have scored given league average performance in the given situations.

IP

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Innings Pitched.

IP Relief

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Innings pitched as a relief pitcher

IP Start

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Innings pitched as a starting pitcher

IP-RP

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The amount of innings pitched as a reliever.

IP-SP

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The amount of innings pitched as a starter.

IP/GS

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Innings pitched per start.

Inh Runs Prevented

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Inherited runs prevented from scoring. The expected number of inherited runners that would score in the reliever's appearances based upon league average performance, minus the actual number the reliever allowed to score.

A negative number means the reliever prevented fewer runs than average, while a positive number means the relieve prevented more runs than average.

Inherited Runners

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Inherited Runners. The total number of runners on base when the pitcher came into the game.

K_9

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Strikeouts per 9 innings pitched.

L

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Refers to a pitcher's losses. In context of a team rather than an individual pitcher, refers to team losses.

LAST_INH_EXP_R

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Total expected run value of all inherited runners still on base when the inheriting pitcher is removed.

NETDP

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The number of additional double plays generated versus an average player with the same number of opportunities. Negative NET DP indicates that fewer double plays than average were produced.

NP

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Total number of pitches thrown.

NSOR

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Non-Strikeout Out Rate -- batting outs (other than by strikeout, i.e. outs on balls in play) per plate appearance.

OBP

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On-base percentage. (H + BB + HBP) divided by (AB + BB + HBP + SF). For pitchers, OBP is on base percentage allowed.

OPP_QUAL_AVG

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Opponent's Quality, Batting Average -- the aggregate batting average of all batters faced (by a pitcher), or allowed by all pitchers faced (for a batter)

OPP_QUAL_OBP

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Opponent's Quality, On-Base Percentage -- the aggregate onbase percentage of all batters faced (by a pitcher), or allowed by all pitchers faced (for a batter)

OPP_QUAL_OPS

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Opponent's Quality, On-Base plus Slugging Average -- the aggregate OPS of all batters faced (by a pitcher), or allowed by all pitchers faced (for a batter)

OPP_QUAL_SLG

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Opponent's Quality, Slugging Average -- the aggregate slugging average of all batters faced (by a pitcher), or allowed by all pitchers faced (for a batter)

OPP_QUAL_TAV

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Opponent's Quality, True Average -- the aggregate True Average of all batters faced (by a pitcher), or allowed by all pitchers faced (for a batter).

OUTS

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Known outs made by the player or induced by a pitcher, defined by AB-H+CS+SH+SF.

PFX

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A component of the Pitch F/X dataset, PFX refers to the horizontal movement, in inches, of a pitch thrown. On an individual basis, righthanded pitchers will have negative horizontal movement on a fastball with lefties posting positive numbers. In larger studies, this data is normalized to avoid any type of skewed results.

PFZ

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A component of the Pitch F/X dataset, PFZ is categorized as the vertical movement, in inches, of a pitch thrown. This is often referred to as the rise or sink on a pitch. The greater the number, the more rise. Sinkerballers and those with two-seam fastballs strive for very low PFZ marks.

PICKOFF

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Number of times picked off

POP%

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Percentage of batted balls that were classified as popups (percentage is based on the number of batted balls that were classified at all -- batted balls which do not have a known type are omitted)

PPF

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PPF is centered around 100, with numbers above and below representing percentage that run-scoring was increased by the mix of parks the pitcher pitched in. For instance, 110 represents 10% above average and 96 represents 4% below average.

PVORP

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Value over Replacement Player (VORP) as a pitcher.

PWARP

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Wins Above Replacement Player (WARP) as a pitcher.

Pitcher

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On the custom statistic reports, the Pitcher column is a unique identification number for the respective pitcher.

Pitches

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Number of pitches seen (batter) or thrown (pitcher)

Platoon Splits

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Complete statistical data is available for:

  • Batters vs left-handed pitchers (LHP)
  • Batters vs right-handed pitchers (RHP)
  • Pitchers vs left-handed batters (LH)
  • Pitchers vs right-handed batters (RH)
In the sortable statistics reports, these can be displayed for any choice of years and levels (MLB, Triple-A, etc.). On the Player Card pages, these are displayed for both the current (or most recent) season, as well as a career-long "Multi" combination, which weights plate appearances by a factor of: (.5) ^ ([current year] - [year]) ... so the current season is weighted 100%, the previous season 50%, etc.

QS

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Quality Start: A start where a pitcher completed at least six innings and gave up no more than three runs.

R

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Runs scored (for hitters) or allowed (pitchers).

RELP

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Relief Percentage -- positive relief decisions (saves and holds) divided by total relief decisions (saves, holds, blown saves)

RUNS_CHARGED_DURING_APP

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Runs charged to a pitcher before he is removed from the game (i.e. excluding runners on base when he exited who may have been allowed to score by a subsequent pitcher)

SHO

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Shutouts.

SLG

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Slugging percentage (hitters) or slugging percentage allowed (pitchers). Total bases divided by at-bats.

SO

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Strikeouts. For pitchers, batters struck out, for batters, times struck out.

SO/BB

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Strikeout to walk ratio: strikeouts divided by walks.

SO9

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Strikeouts per 9 innings pitched.

SO_IP

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Strikeouts per inning pitched

SOr

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Strikeout Rate -- Strikeouts per plate appearance

STRK%

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Percentage of pitches thrown for strikes.

SV

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Saves.

Strikeout Rate

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Strikeouts per plate appearance.

Strikes

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Number of strikes seen (batter) or thrown (pitcher)

SvHold

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Saves + Holds

TAv_Against

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True Average Against is to True Average what Batting Average Against is to Batting Average. In other words, True Average Against will tell you how well opposing batters have hit a pitcher. Do note that while True Average Against takes the pitcher's park, league, and situational-based hitting into account, it does not exclude data where the pitcher faced an opposing pitcher. Because of that, National League pitchers should possess lower True Average Against than their American League counterparts.

TBF

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Not recorded for the NL 1876-1886, the AA of 1882-83, the 1884 UA, or the NA of 1871-75.

UBB

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Unintentional bases on balls (walks)

UBBr

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Unintentional base on balls rate (UBB per plate appearance).

URA

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Unearned Run Average. Equal to (Unearned Runs)/(Innings Pitched)*9

W

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Refers to a pitcher's wins. In context of a team rather than an individual pitcher, refers to team wins.

WARP

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Perhaps no sabermetric theory is more abstract than that of the replacement-level player. Essentially, replacement-level players are of a caliber so low that they are always available in the minor leagues because the players are well below major-league average. Prospectus' definition of replacement level contends that a team full of such players would win a little over 50 games. This is a notable increase in replacement level from previous editions of Wins Above Replacement Player.

Here is an example of the Wins Above Replacement Player spectrum based on the 2011 season:

Excellent - Jose Bautista 10.3
Great - Hunter Pence 5.2
Average -Gaby Sanchez 2.0
Poor - Adam Lind 0.5
Horrendous - Adam Dunn -1.7

WHIP

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Walks plus hits allowed per inning pitched.

WHOLE_INNINGS

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Whole innings -- complete innings started and finished by the pitcher (no fractional innings are counted)

WP

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Wild pitches.

W_9

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Walks allowed per 9 innings pitched

Win%

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Winning percentage (wins / total decisions)

ZONE_RT

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Zone Rate is calculated using PITCHf/x data and shows the percentage of pitches seen (by hitters) or thrown (by pitchers) that are in the rule-book strike zone.

Hitter Examples (2012):

Very few: Pablo Sandoval, 0.4005
Few: Kirk Nieuwenhuis, 0.4833
Around average: Andres Torres, 0.5054
Many: Bobby Abreu, 0.5244
Very many: Chone Figgins, 0.5787

Pitcher Examples (2012):

Very few: Jared Hughes, 0.33554
Few: Jared Burton, 0.4775
Around average: Jeremy Accardo, 0.4879
Many: Joe Blanton, 0.5217
Very many: Jake Mcgee, 0.5897


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